جامع عمرو بن العاص

Address: Hasan el Anwar Street, Cairo, Egypt

Latitude: 30.0093560

Longitude: 31.2321660

Time Zone: Central Africa Time

Categories: Attraction, Activities

Tags: Cultural, Outdoors, Family

Reviews

جامع عمرو بن العاص هو أول مسجد بني في مصر وإفريقيا كلها. بني في مدينة الفسطاط التي أسسها المسلمون في مصر بعد فتحها. كان يسمى أيضا بمسجد الفتح والمسجد العتيق وتاج الجوامع. يقع جامع عمرو بن العاص شرق النيل عند خط طول 31 13 59 شرق، وعند خط عرض 30 0 37 شمال

استنادا إلى الشبكة الإسلامية: «كانت مساحة الجامع وقت إنشائه 50 ذراعاً في 30 ذراعاً وله ستة أبواب، وظل كذلك حتى عام 53هـ / 672م حيث توالت التوسعات فزاد من مساحته مسلمة بن مخلد الأنصاري والي مصر من قبل معاوية بن أبي سفيان وأقام فيه أربع مآذن، وتوالت الإصلاحات والتوسعات بعد ذلك علي يد من حكموا مصر حتى وصلت مساحته بعد عمليات التوسيع المستمرة نحو أربعة وعشرين ألف ذراع معماري،. وهو الآن 120 في 110أمتار»[1].

إبان الحملة الصليبية على بلاد المسلمين وتحديدا عام 564 هـ، خاف الوزير شاور من احتلال الصليبيين لمدينة الفسطاط فعمد إلى إشعال النيران فيها إذ كان عاجزا عن الدفاع عنها واحترقت الفسطاط وكان مما احترق وتخرب وتهدم جامع عمرو بن العاص. عندما ضم صلاح الدين الأيوبي مصر إلى دولته، أمر بإعادة إعمار المسجد من جديد عام 568 هـ، فأعيد بناء صدر الجامع والمحراب الكبير الذي كسي بالرخام ونقش عليه نقوشا منها اسمه.

وممن ألقى دروسا وخطبا ومواعظ في هذا الجامع:

الشافعي
الليث بن سعد
أبو طاهر السلفي
العز بن عبد السلام
ابن هشام صاحب السيرة.
الشيخ محمد الغزالي.
Amr ibn al-As was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. A contemporary of Muhammad, and one of the Sahaba ("Companions"), who rose quickly through the Muslim hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 AH (629 CE). He founded the Egyptian capital of Fustat, and built the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As at its center —This is the first and oldest mosque ever built on the land of Egypt. Erected in 642 AD (21 AH) by Amr Ibn al'As, the commander of the Muslim army that conquered Egypt, prayers are still held in this large mosque dating back to 641 CE. Muslim leader Amr Ibn el-Aas is said to have ordered its construction upon receiving a sign from God in the form of a dove nesting in his tent. When the doves brood was raised, the mosque was built on the site. It has been altered throughout the centuries and incorporates many different styles. No two of its 150 columns are identical.


The mosque is the oldest existing mosque, not just in Cairo, but the entire African Continent. Located north of the Roman Fortress of Babylon, it is actually on the edge of Fustat, the temporary city founded by Amr, and was an Islamic learning center long before El-Azhar Mosque. It could hold up to 5,000 students.



The mosque was originally built on an area of 1,500 square cubits, overlooking the Nile. The initial structure was quite simple; with walls bare of any plaster or decorations, but without niche (miharb), minaret or ground cover. It had two doors on the north and two others facing Amr's house.



The mosque area remained unchanged until 672 AD (53 AH), when Musallama al-Ansari, Egypt's ruler on behalf of Caliph Mu'awiya Ibn abi-Sufian undertook expansion and renovation works for the mosque. Walls and ceilings were decorated and four compartments for "muezzins" (callers for prayers) were added at the corners, together with a minaret, while the mosque ground was covered with straw mats.
Amr Mosque was not merely a place of worship but also served as a court for settling religious and civil disputes. Moreover, teaching circles were organized either for general religious preaching or teaching lessons in Quranic sciences, jurisprudence and Prophet Muhammad's Tradition (Hadith) as well as letters.

The mosque incorporates elements of Greek and Roman buildings, and has 150 white marble columns and three minarets. Simple in design, its present plan consists of an open sahn (court) surrounded by four riwaqs,
This is the first and oldest mosque ever built on the land of Egypt. Erected in 642 AD (21 AH) by Amr Ibn al'As, the commander of the Muslim army that conquered Egypt, the mosque is also known as Taj al-Jawamie (Crown of Mosques, al-Jamie'al-Ateeq (the Ancient Mosque) and Masjid Ahl ar-Rayah (Mosque of Banner Holders).

The mosque is said to have been built on the site of Amr Ibn el-As's tent at Fustat, is the oldest existing mosque, not just in Cairo, but the entire African Continent. Located north of the Roman Fortress of Babylon, it is actually on the edge of Fustat, the temporary city founded by Amr, and was an Islamic learning center long before El-Azhar Mosque. It could hold up to 5,000 students.
The mosque was originally built on an area of 1,500 square cubits, overlooking the Nile. The initial structure was quite simple; with walls bare of any plaster or decorations, but without niche (miharb), minaret or ground cover. It had two doors on the north and two others facing Amr's house.

The mosque area remained unchanged until 672 AD (53 AH), when Musallama al-Ansari, Egypt's ruler on behalf of Caliph Mu'awiya Ibn abi-Sufian undertook expansion and renovation works for the mosque. Walls and ceilings were decorated and four compartments for "muezzins" (callers for prayers) were added at the corners, together with a minaret, while the mosque ground was covered with straw mats.

In 698 AD (79 AH), the mosque was demolished and expanded by Abdul-Aziz Ibn Marwan, Egypt's ruler. Once again in 711 AD (93 AH), the mosque was demolished by Prince Qurrah Ibn Shuraik al-Absi, Egypt's ruler. Upon the orders of Caliph al-Waleed Ibn Abdul-Malek, the mosque area was enlarged, a niche, a wooden pulpit (minbar) and a compartment and copings of four cloumns facing the niche were gold-coated. The mosque had then four doors to the east, four to the west and three to the north.

Under the Abbasid state, successive additions and repairs were introduced. In 827 AD (212 AH), Abdullah Ibn Taher, Egypt's ruler on behalf of Caliph al-Ma'moun ordered an equivalent area to the north to be added to the mosque, thus bringing its total area to its present level of 13,556,25 square metres. (112.3m x 120.5m). However, the Fatimid period was the gold era for the mosque, where gilted mosaics, marble works, a wooden compartment and a moving pulpit were introduced and part of the niche was silver-coated.

The last structural amendments in Amr Mosque were made during the rule of Murad Bey

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